passage1
注解:标题为红色,翻译为蓝色,分析为绿色。?? ? ? ?specialisation can be seen as a response to the problem of an increasing accumulation of scientific knowledge. by splitting up the subject matter into smaller units, one man could continue to handle the information and use it as the basis for further research. but specialisation was only one of a series of related developments in science affecting the process of communication. another was the growing professionalisation of scientific activity.
????????no clear-cut distinction can be drawn between professionals and amateurs in science: exceptions can be found to any rule. nevertheless, the word does carry a connotation that the person concerned is not fully integrated into the scientific community and, in particular, may not fully share its values. the growth of specialisation in the nineteenth century, with its consequent requirement of a longer, more complex training, implied greater problems for amateur participation in science. the trend was natural
2001年考研英语阅读真题及解析【第一篇】 – 哔哩哔哩(2001年考研英语阅读答案)插图
ly most obvious in those areas of science based especially on a mathematical or laboratory training, and can be illustrated in terms of the development of geology in the united kingdom.
????????a comparison of british geological publications over the last century and a half reveals not simply an increasing emphasis on the primacy of research, but also a changing definition of what constitutes an acceptable research paper. thus, in the nineteenth century, local geological studies represented worthwhile research in their own right; but, in the twentieth century, local studies have increasingly become acceptable to professionals only if they incorporate, and reflect on, the wider geological picture. amateurs, on the other hand, have continued to pursue local studies in the old way. the overall result has been to make entrance to professional?geological journals harder for amateurs,a result that has been reinforced by the widespread introduction of refereeing, first by national journals in the nineteenth century and then by several local geological journals in the twentieth century. as a logical consequence of this development, separate journals have now appeared aimed mainly towards either professional or amateur readership.a rather similar process of differentiation has led to professional geologists coming together nationally within one or two specific societies, whereas the amateurs have tended either to remain in local societies or to come together nationally in a different way.
????????although the process of professionalisation and specialisation was already well under way in british geology during the nineteenth century, its full consequences were thus delayed until the twentieth century. in science generally, however, the nineteenth century must be reckoned as the crucial period for this change in the structure of science.

一、文章结构分析
这是一篇论述科学发展的专业化和职业化的文章。全文客观地描述这一过程,并且以英国地质学的发展为例说明专业化发展导致专业人员和业余人员之间的分化越来越明显。
第一段:科学知识的积累导致知识的进一步分类和分化,即专业化发展。与专业化发展同时并存的另一现象是科学活动的日益职业化。
第二段:专业化的发展给业余研究者的进入带来了困难,这种趋势在某些科学领域尤为突出。
第三、四段指出:以英国地质学研究为例,说明专业人员和业余人员之间分化越来越明显。而这种专业化和职业化的分化过程早在19世纪英国的地质学领域就已经开始形成。

21.the growth of specialisation in the 19th century might be more clearly seen in sciences such as.
[a] sociology and chemistry
[b] physics and psychology?
[c] sociology and psychology?
[d] physics and chemistry?
21.19世纪专业化的发展在科学领域更为显见。
【a】社会学、化学
【b】物理学、心理学
【c】社会学、心理学
【d】物理学、化学

22.we can infer from the passage that.
[a]there is little distinction between specialisation and professionalisation
[b]amateurs can compete with professionals in some areas of science
[c]professionals tend to welcome amateurs into the scientific community
[d]amateurs have national academic societies but no local ones?
22.从文中,我们可以推断出
【a】专业化和职业化过程几乎没有区别
【b】业余研究者可以在某些科学领域与专业研究者相匹敌
【c】专业人员倾向于欢迎业余人员加入他们的科学团体
【d】非专业研究人员拥有全国性的学术机构,但是没有地方性的机构

23.the author writes of the development of geology to demonstrate.
[a]the process of specialisation and professionalisation
[b] the hardship of amateurs in scientific study
[c]the change of policies in scientific publications?
[d]the discrimination of professionals against amateurs
23.作者提到地质学发展的目的是为了说明.
【a】职业化和专业化形成的过程
【b】业余研究者在科学研究中碰到的困难
【c】科技出版物出版方针的变化
【d】专业研究者对业余研究者的歧视

24.the direct reason for specialisation is____________?.
[a]the development in communication?
[b] the growth of professionalisation
[c]the expansion of scientific knowledge
[d]the splitting up of academic societies
24.造成专业化的直接原因是___________?
【a】交流的发展
【b】职业化的发展
【c】科学知识的扩展
【d】学术团体的分裂

二、核心词汇与超纲词汇
1.specialisation
(n.)专业化;
specialize
(v.)(in)专攻,专门研究,使专用于;
specialized(a.)专门的,专科的
2.accumulation
(n.)积累,积聚(物);
accumulate(v.)
3.split
(v./n.)裂开,劈开;分裂,分离;
split up(使)分裂;(使)分离;分成(小组);【美】吵架;离婚
(4)professionalisation
(n.)职业化;
professionalize(v.)(使)职业化/专业化;
professional
(a.)专业的,职业的
(n.)自由职业者,专业人员
(5)clear-cut(a.)明确的,清晰的
(6)amateur(n.)业余爱好者;外行
(a.)业余的;非职业的;外行的
amateurship(n.)业余者的资格或身份
amateurish(a.)业余的,非职业的,不熟练的
amateurismn.(n.)业余性,非职业的作为
(7)conmotation(n.)含义,内涵,隐含意义;言外之意
(8)integrate(v.)(into,with)(使)成为一体,(使)结合在一起,(使)合并;
integration(n.)综合;
integrative(a.)综合的,一体化的
(9)participation(n.)参与,参加;
participate(v.)(in)参加,参与;分享,分担;
participator(n.)参与者,合作者;
participatory(a.)供人分享的
(10)primacy(n.)首位,首要,首席
(11)in ones own right 凭本身的权利(能力、实力,资格)
(12)reinforce(v.)加强,增援,增加,强化
(13)referee(v.)审阅,鉴定;裁判,仲裁(n.)仲裁人,调解人,【体】裁判员
(14)reckon(v.)认为,估计;指望,想要;测算,依靠
reckon as认为,视为,把……看作
三、阅读答案:d?b?a?c
四、全文翻译:
? ? ???专业化可被视为针对科学知识不断膨胀这个问题所做出的反应。通过将学科细化成小单元,人们能够继续处理这些不断膨胀的信息并将它们作为深入研究的基础。但是专业化仅是科学领域内一系列影响交流过程的有关现象之一。另一现象是科学活动的日益职业化。
????????在科学领域内,专业人员与业余人员之间没有绝对的区分:任何规则都有其例外。但是“业余”这个词的确有含义:那就是所指的那个人没有完全融入某个科学家群体,特别是,他可能并不完全认同这个群体的价值观。19世纪的专业化的发展,以及随之而来的对训练的长期性和复杂性的要求,对业余人员进入科学界造成了更大的困难。这一趋势在以数学训练或实验室训练为基础的科学领域里自然表现得最为突出,英国地质学的发展可以说明这一问题。
????????把英国最近一个半世纪的地质学刊物作一比较,人们发现,不仅研究的重要性越来越受到强调,而且学术论文的出版标准也在不断地发生变化。因此,在19世纪,局部的地质学研究本身就代表了一种有价值的科研;而到了20世纪,局部的研究只有在包含或考虑到更广阔的地质面貌时才越来越被专业人员接受。另一方面业余人员继续以旧的方式从事局部的研究。结果是,业余人员更难在专业地质刊物上发表论文。这种结果因为评审制度的引入表现得更突出。开始是19世纪国家级杂志的引入,后来是20世纪数家地方地质杂志的引入。这样发展的必然结果是出现了针对专业读者和业余读者的不同杂志。类似的分化过程也导致专业地质学家聚集起来,形成一两个全国性的团体,而业余地质学家则要么留在地方性团体中,要么以不同方式组成全国性的团体。
????????虽然职业化和专业化过程在19世纪的英国地质学界中己经开始形成,但是它的效果却延迟到20世纪才充分显示出来。然而,从科学这个整体来看,i9世纪必须被视为科学结构发生变化的关键时期。
????????

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