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ⅰuseofenglish

directions:readthefollowingtext.choosethebestword(s)foreachnumberedblankandmarka,b,cordontheanswersheet.(10points)todayweliveinaworldwheregpssystems,digitalmaps,andothernavigationappsareavailableonoursmartphones.

1

ofusjustwalkstraightintothewoodswithoutaphone.butphones

2

onbatteries,andbatteriescandiefasterthanwerealize.

3

yougetlostwithoutaphoneoracompass,andyou

4

can’tfindnorth,afewtrickstohelpyounavigate

5

tocivilization,oneofwhichistofollowtheland…whenyoufindyourselfwell

6

atrail,butnotinacompletely

7

area,youhavetoanswertwoquestions:which

8

isdownhill,inthisparticulararea?andwhereisthenearestwatersource?humansoverwhelminglyliveinvalleys,andonsuppliesoffreshwater.

9

,ifyouheaddownhill,andfollowanyh2oyoufind,youshould

10

seesignsofpeople.ifyou’veexploredtheareabefore,keepaneyeoutforfamiliarsights—youmaybe

11

howquicklyidentifyingadistinctiverockortreecanrestoreyourbearings.another

12

:climbhighandlookforsignsofhumanhabitation.

13

,evenindenseforest,youshouldbeableto

14

gapsinthetreelineduetoroads,traintracks,andotherpathspeoplecarve

15

thewoods.headtowardthese

16

tofindawayout.atnight,scanthehorizonfor

17

lightsources,suchasfiresandstreetlights,thenwalktowardtheglowoflightpollution.

18

,assumingyou’relostinanareahumanstendtofrequent,lookforthe

19

weleaveonthelandscape.trailblazes,tiretracks,andotherfeaturescan

20

youtocivilization.1.

[a]some[b]most[c]few[d]all2.

[a]put[b]take[c]run[d]come3.

[a]since[b]if[c]though[d]until4.

[a]formally[b]relatively[c]gradually[d]literally5.

[a]back

[b]next[c]around[d]away6.

[a]onto[b]off[c]across[d]alone7.

[a]unattractive[b]uncrowded[c]unchanged[d]unfamiliar8.

[a]site[b]point[c]way[d]place9.

[a]so[b]yet[c]instead[d]besides10.

[a]immediately[b]intentionally[c]unexpectedly[d]eventually11.

[a]surprised[b]annoyed[c]frightened[d]confused12.

[a]problem[b]option[c]view[d]result13.

[a]aboveall[b]incontrast[c]onaverage[d]forexample14.

[a]bridge[b]avoid[c]spot[d]separate15.

[a]from[b]through[c]beyond[d]under16.

[a]posts[b]links[c]shades[d]breaks17.

[a]artificial

[b]mysterious

[c]hidden

[d]limited18.

[a]finally

[b]consequently

[c]incidentally[d]generally19.

[a]memories

[b]marks

[c]notes

[d]belongings20.

[a]restrict

[b]adopt

[c]lead

[d]expose

1-20参考答案及解析:1.

生活在一个gps系统,数字地图和其他导航应用程序都在我们的智能手机上轻易获取”。空格之后的语句与前面语义方向一致,再考虑到句中的withoutaphone,可知,此处需要双重否定表达肯定,所以,选择few,符合文意;2.

【c】run

固定搭配;此题考查与介词on的搭配情况;runonbattery表示手机使用电池得以运行;其他选项的搭配为:puton(增加;假装;使…上场);takeon(承担;呈现;具有;流行);comeon(

快点;开始;要求;上演;);语义搭配不通顺,故选择runon搭配;3.

【b】if

逻辑关系;此处考查逻辑关系。空格处所在句为“…

你在没有电话或指南针的情况下迷路,…找不到北方,我们有一些技巧可以 助你导航…文明”;前后句之间构成假设的逻辑关系,所以选择if;其余选项:since(因为,自从);though(虽然);

until(直到)代入后,不符合语义表达;4.

【d】literally词义辨析题;空格处所在句为“假如你在没有电话或指南针的情况下迷路,…找不到北方,我们有一些技巧可以 助你导航…文明”;literally表示确实地,真正地;符合语义表达;其余选项:formally(正式地);relatively(相对地);gradually(逐渐地)不符合语义表达;5.

【a】back词义辨析题;出题处的语义表达“我们有一些技巧可以 助你导航…文明”,只有back

与前文的lost(迷路)形成相互呼应,故而选择back;6.

【b】off

词义辨析题;空格所在句提到“为当你发现自己…路径。

但不是完全…的区域。你需要回答两个问题:在这个特殊区域中,哪个..是下坡路?哪里有最近的水源?”因此,根据句意表达,off(远离,离开)符合句意;其它选项:onto(在…之上;对…了解);across(穿过,根穿),alone(独白地,单独地),故选择off;7.

【d】unfamiliar

词义辨析题;根据出题处的语义表达,“为当你发现自己…路径。

但不是完全…的区域”,语义搭配,unfamiliar更符合要求;其他选项:unattractive(不吸引人的);uncrowded(不利挤的,宽敞的);c选项unchanged(未改变的,无变化的);不符合语义表达;8.

【c】way词义辨析题;根据出题处的语境表述“你需要回答两个问题:在这个特殊区域中,哪个…是下坡路?哪里有最近的水源?”因此只有way符合要求;其他选项:site(地点;位置;场所);point(要点;得分;标点);place(地方;住所;座位),不符合句意表达;9.

【a】so逻辑关系题;出题句指出“生活在山谷里的人,基本上需要淡水为生,…如果你下山,沿着水走,你会发现人类的踪迹…”,此处语义逻辑很明显,考察因果逻辑关系;故选择so,其它选项:yet(但是,然而);

instead(反而,替代);

besides(此外,而且);不符合句义要求;10.

【d】eventually

词义辨析题;出题句提及“…如果你下山,沿着水走,你会发现人类的踪迹…”,只有eventually(最后,终于)符合题目要求,语义通顺;其它选项:immediately

(立即,立刻);intentionally(故意地,有意地);unexpectedly(出乎意料地);不符合语义表达,故排除;11.

【a】surprised词义辨析题;出题句提及“如果你之前去过这个地方,一定要注意熟悉景象,你或许会…快速识别出一块特征明显的石头或者树木来唤起你的记忆”;此处只有surprised符合题目要求;其他选项带有明显的贬义色彩,故不符合;12.

【b】option词义辨析题;本文第一段中提到“如果你在没有电话或指南针的情况下迷路了,而且你真的找不到北方,我们会有一些技巧可言 助你回到文明社会”,此处考查的地方就是前文提及的“另一个…:登到高处寻找有人类居住的标志”;只有option(选择)符合句义及情感色彩要求;13.

【d】forexample逻辑关系题;出题句前后构抽象到具体的例证关系(前文提到“另一个选择就是登高寻找有人类居住的标志”,与后文的lookforsigns形成抽象到具体的过程),故选择forexample;14.

【c】spot

词义辨析题;此题需借助前面的语义内容及逻辑关系辅助做题;此处需填入的动词和lookfor

语义相近,故选择spot(发现),符合语义表达;其他选项:bridge(架桥,渡过);avoid(避开,消除);separate(分开);不符合语义要求;15.

【b】through词义辨析题;分析:本题为语义题及固定搭配题,考查carve与woods之间的关系,根据常识可知,路应该是穿过森林开凿出来的,故本句意为穿过森林开凿出的公路,故b选项through为正确答案。16.

【d】breaks语义辨析题;本题为语义题,根据上一句信息,因为人为原因而造成的gapsinthetreeline,不难判断,朝着有树木缺口的地方走,就能找到出去的路,故d选项breaks为正确答案。17.

【a】artificial词义辨析题及逻辑关系题;因题干中suchas表示举例关系,故我们首先根据例子信息可以判断文中firesandstreetlights可以确定火与街灯的共同特征是人造光源,故本题a选项artificial为正确答案。18.

【a】finally

语义题;文章后面指出假设你在人类常去的地方迷路,寻找我们在地面上留下的······,因前文已经举例说明了几种情况,如当你在一个并非完全不熟悉的环境中迷路······,可知此处应是最后一种假设情况,故本题a选项finally为正确答案。19.

【b】mark词义辨析题;根据常识,在人类常去的地方,地面上必定有很多标志,故寻找我们在地面上留下的标志,在此处更符合文意,故本题b选项marks为正确答案。20.

【c】lead词义辨析题;道路上的树皮刻痕、轮胎印和其他特征能够指引你去有人烟的地方,此外,本题处的单词应该与前文中的navigate同义,故本题c选项lead为正确答案。

sectionⅱreadingcomprehensionpartadirections:readthefollowingfourtexts.answerthequestionsbeloweachtextbychoosinga,b,cord.markyouranswersonthe

answersheet.(40points)

text1financialregulationsinbritainhaveimposedaratherunusualruleonthebossesofbigbanks.startingnextyear,anyguaranteedbonusoftopexecutivescouldbedelayed10yearsiftheirbanksareunderinvestigationforwrongdoing.themainpurposeofthis“clawback”ruleistoholdbankersaccountableforharmfulrisk-takingandtorestorepublictrustinfinancialinstitution.yetofficialsalsohopeforamuchlargerbenefit:morelongtermdecision-makingnotonlybybanksbutalsobuallcorporations,tobuildastrongereconomyforfuturegenerations.“short-termism”orthedesireforquickprofits,hasworsenedinpubliclytradedcompanies,saysthebankofengland’stopeconomist.andrewhaldane.hequotesagiantofclassicaleconomies,alfredmarshall,indescribingthisfinancialimpatienceasactinglike“childrenwhopicktheplumsoutoftheirpuddingtoeatthematonce”ratherthanputtingthemasidetobeeatenlast.theaveragetimeforholdingastockinboththeunitedstatesandbritain,henotes,hasdroppedfromsevenyearstosevenmonthsinrecentdecades.transientinvestors,whodemandhighquarterlyprofitsfromcompanies,canhinderafirm’seffortstoinvestinlong-termresearchortobuildupcustomerloyalty.thishasbeendubbed“quarterlycapitalism”.inaddition,newdigitaltechnologieshaveallowedmorerapidtradingofequities,quickeruseofinformation,andthusshortensattentionspansinfinancialmarkers.“thereseemstobeapredominanceofshort-termthinkingattheexpenseoflong-terminvesting,”saidcommissionerdanielgallagheroftheussecuritiesandexchangecommissioninspeechthisweek.intheus,thesarbanes-oxleyactof2002haspushedmostpubliccompaniestodeferperformancebonusesforseniorexecutivesbyaboutayear,slightlyhelpingreduce“short-termism.”initslatestsurveyofceopay,thewallstreetjournalfindsthat“asubstantialpart”ofexecutivepayisnowtiedtoperformance.muchmorecouldbedonetoencourage“long-termism,”suchaschangesinthetaxcodeandquickerdisclosureofstockacquisitions.infrance,shareholderswhoholdontoacompanyinvestmentforatleasttwoyearscansometimesearnmorevotingrightsinacompany.withincompanies,therightcompensationdesigncanprovideincentivesforexecutivestothinkbeyondtheirowntimeatthecompanyandonbehalfofallstakeholders.britain’snewruleisaremindertobankersthatsocietyhasaninterestintheirperformance,notjustfortheshorttermbutforthelongterm.21.

accordingtoparagraph1,onemotiveinimposingthenewruleisthe_________.a.

enhancebanker’ssenseofresponsibilityb.

helpcorporationsachievelargerprofitsc.

buildanewsystemoffinancialregulationd.

guaranteethebonusesoftopexecutives22.

alfredmarshallisquotedtoindicate_________.a.

theconditionsforgeneratingquickprofitsb.

governments’impatienceindecision-makingc.

thesolidstructureofpubliclytradedcompaniesd.

“short-termism”ineconomicsactivities23.

itisarguedthattheinfluenceoftransientinvestmentonpubliccompaniescanbe__________.a.

indirectb.

adversec.

minimald.

temporary24.

theusandfranceexamples

areusedtoillustrate____________.a.

theobstaclestopreventing“short-termism”.b.

thesignificanceoflong-termthinking.c.

theapproachestopromoting“long-termism”.d.

theprevalenceofshort-termthinking.25.

whichofthefollowingwouldbethebesttitleforthetext?a.

failureofquarterlycapitalismb.

patienceasacorporatevirtuec.

decisivenessrequiredoftopexecutivesd.

frustrationofrisk-takingbankers

21-25参考答案及解析:21.【a】enhancebanker’ssenseofresponsibility;细节题。题目中明确出题段落(accordingtoparagraph1)及相应的信息点(onemotiveinimposingthenewrule),因此,答案来源句则为第一段的第三句(themainpurposeofthis“clawback”ruleistoholdbankersaccountableforharmfulrisk-takingandtorestorepublictrustinfinancialinstitution这个规则主要目的是让银行家为不良风险负责以及修复公众对金融机构的信任),那么答案基本就很容易提取出来。选项中的“senseofresponsibility”则对应到句中的“enhancebanker’ssenseofresponsibility(增加银行的责任感)”;而其他的选项则与最佳选项无缘,在定位区间中没有相应的对应信息。22.【d】

“short-termism”ineconomicactivities;细节题。题干中的定位信息在“alfredmarshall”上,直接定位到第二段的第二句“hequotesagiantofclassicaleconomies,alfredmarshall,indescribingthisfinancialimpatienceasacting…”,定位信息里的“thisfinancialimpatience”则是回指第二段首句的“short-termism”,故信息点则为“short-termism”,所以最佳选项则为”short-termism”ineconomicactivities,而其他选项在定位信息中未提及;23.【b】

adverse;细节题。此题的定位信息为题干的“transientinvestment”,直接定位到第三段的第二句“transientinvestors,whodemandhighquarterlyprofitsfromcompanies,canhinderafirm’seffortstoinvestinlong-termresearchortobuildupcustomerloyalty”,从四个选项的褒贬正负来看indirect、minimal

和temporary为中性的表述,只有b选项的adverse为明确的负面表达,意思为“不利的”,与原文中的“hinder”(阻碍打扰)对应上。24.【c】theapproachestopromoting”long-termism”

;例证题。根据题干的具体信息定位,美国和法国的例子是用来支撑什么论点。原文的第五、六段则提供了具体的信息,第五段中美国延迟发放才上任一年左右的高管绩效津贴,继而促进缓解“短期主义”盛行的现状;第六段则提及在法国持股两年以上者拥有更大的选票权。所以,最佳选项应为“促进长期主义的方法”,与原文一致;25.【b】patienceasacorporatevirtue;主旨题。题干中的title为标题题的信息,所以此题考查的是文章的主旨大意;b选项里的patience可以对应到全文中反复出现的主题词“short-termism”和“long-termism”,corporate本身在文章中出现多次,所以b

选项则为最近标题,体现主旨大意;其余选项均不能概括全文,故排除。

text2

gradeinflation–thegradualincreaseinaveragegpas(grade-pointaverages)overthepastfewdecades—isoftenconsideredaproductofaconsumererainhighereducation,inwhichstudentsaretreatedlikecustomerstobepleased.butanother,relatedforce—apolicyoftenburieddeepincoursecatalogscalled“gradeforgiveness”—ishelpingraisegpas.

gradeforgivenessallowsstudentstoretakeacourseinwhichtheyreceivedalowgrade,andthemostrecentgradeorthehighestgradeistheonlyonethatcountsincalculatingastudent’soverallgpa.

theuseofthislittle-knownpracticehasacceleratedinrecentyears,ascollegescontinuetodotheirutmosttokeepstudentsinschool(andpayingtuition)andimprovetheirgraduationrates.whenthispracticefirststarteddecadesago,itwasusuallylimitedtofreshmen,togivethemasecondchancetotakeaclassintheirfirstyeariftheystruggledintheirtransitiontocollege-levelcourses.butnowmostcollegessaveformanyselectivecampuses,allowallundergraduates,andevengraduatestudents,togettheirlowgradesforgiven.

collegeofficialstendtoemphasizethatthegoalofgradeforgivenessislessaboutthegradeitselfandmoreaboutencouragingstudentstoretakecoursescriticaltotheirdegreeprogramandgraduationwithoutincurringabigpenalty.“untimely,”saidjackminer,ohiostateuniversity’sregistrar,“weseestudentsachievemoresuccessbecausetheyretakeacourseanddobetterinsubsequentcontentsormasterthecontentthatallowsthemtograduateontime.”

thatsaid,thereisawayinwhichgradeforgivenesssatisfiescolleges’ownneedsaswell.forpublicinstitutions,statefundsaresometimestiedpartlytotheirsuccessonmetricssuchasgraduationratesandstudentretention—sobettergradescan,byboostingfigureslikethose,meanmoremoney.andanythingthatraisesgpaswilllikelymakestudents—who,attheendoftheday,arepayingthebill—feelthey’vegottenabettervaluefortheirtuitiondollars,whichisanotherbigconcernforcolleges.

indeed,gradeforgivenessisjustanotherwaythatuniversitiesarerespondingtoconsumers’expectationsforhighereducation.sincestudentsandparentsexpectacollegedegreetoleadajob,itisinthebestinterestofaschooltoturnoutgraduateswhoareasqualifiedaspossible—oratleastappeartobe.onthis,students’andcolleges’incentivesseemtobealigned.

26.

whatiscommonlyregardedasthecauseofgradeinflation?a.

thechangeofcoursecatalogs.b.

students’indifferencetogpas.c.

colleges’neglectofgpas.d.

theinfluenceofconsumerculture.27.

whatwastheoriginalpurposeofgradeforgiveness?a.

tohelpfreshmenadapttocollegelearning.b.

tomaintaincolleges’graduationrates.c.

topreparegraduatesforachallengingfuture.d.

toincreaseuniversities’incomefromtuition.28.

accordingtoparagraph5,gradeforgivenessenablecollegesto_________.a.

obtainmorefinancialsupportb.

boosttheirstudentenrollmentsc.

improvetheirteachingqualityd.

meetlocalgovernments’needs29.

whatdoesthephrase“tobealigned”(line5,para.6)mostprobablymean?a.

tocounterbalanceeachother.b.

tocomplementeachother.c.

tobeidenticalwitheachother.d.

tobecontradictorytoeachother.30.

theauthorexaminesthepracticeofgradeforgivenessby________.a.

assessingitsfeasibilityb.

analyzingthecausesbehinditc.

comparingdifferentviewsonitd.

listingitslong-runeffects

26-30参考答案及解析:26.【d】theinfluenceofconsumerculture;细节题。根据题干中的关键词gradeinflation

可以定位到首段第一句话,此句话的句子主干:“gradeinflationisoftenconsideredaproductofaconsumererainhighereducation.”题干中的beregardedas对应原文中的isconsidered,题干中的thecauseof(后边接结果)与原文中的aproductof

(前边接结果)都表示因果关系。选项d中consumer是原文中的复现,其他选项都不具备干扰性,因此答案
2000-2019年考研英语历年真题和答案(英语一)word版-20230104.doc(2000-2010经典歌曲)插图
选择d。27.【a】tohelpfreshmenadapttocollegelearning;细节题。根据题干中的关键词,我们只能定位到文章的第二段,但是第二段讲的是gradeforgiveness具体是什么,并没有提及它的目的,然后接下看第三段的首句,出现了thislittle-knownpractice指的就是gradeforgiveness。而且题干中的theoriginalpurpose对应原文中的在第三段第二句话:

“whenthispracticefirststarteddecadesago,itwasusuallylimitedtofreshmen,togivethemasecondchancetotakeaclassintheirfirstyeariftheystruggledintheirtransitiontocollege-levelcourses.”选项a中的freshmen是原词复现,help是对应原文中的givethemasecondchance,adaptto对应原文中的struggledintheirtransitionto,collegelearning对应原文中的college-levelcourses。因此答案为a。28.【a】obtainmorefinancialsupport;细节题。根据题干中的关键词paragraph5、gradeforgiveness和colleges可以定位到第五段的第一句,即gradeforgiveness能够满足学生的需求,但是对应选项并没有对应的答案,所以接着往下看,提到了国家基金与他们的成功有关,得到更好地分数意为这拿到更多的钱。选项a中的financialsupport指的就是statefunds。因此答案为a。29.【c】tobeidenticalwitheachother;猜词题。根据题干,可以定位到第六段最后一句话:“onthis,students’

andcolleges’

incentivesseemtobealigned.”所以解题的关键是找到this指代的内容。this指代的是前一句话,即:因为学生和家长都希望通过大学学历来找工作,所以学校的最佳利益是尽可能地把学生培养成有能力胜任的人,或者至少看起来是那样。由此可以的出学生和学校的目标是一致的,选项c中的beidenticalwith表示的是与……相同,因此答案为c。30.【b】analyzingthecausesbehindit;主旨题。题干的字面意思是作者是通过什么样的方式来检验gradeforgiveness的实践操作,但是是考查文章的主旨,属于主旨题。阅读每段的段落大意句,可以得出文章主要讲解的是gradeforgiveness的原因。因此答案为b。

text3

thisyearmarksexactlytwocountriessincethepublicationoffrankenstein;or,themodernprometheus,bymaryshelley.evenbeforetheinventionoftheelectriclightbulb,theauthorproducedaremarkableworkofspeculativefictionthatwouldforeshadowmanyethicalquestionstoberaisedbytechnologiesyettocome.

todaytherapidgrowthofartificialintelligence(ai)raisesfundamentalquestions:”whatisintelligence,identify,orconsciousness?whatmakeshumanshumans?”whatisbeing

calledartificialgeneralintelligence,machinesthatwouldimitatethewayhumansthink,continuestoevadescientists.yethumansremainfascinatedbytheideaofrobotsthatwouldlook,move,andrespondlikehumans,similartothoserecentlydepictedonpopularsci-fitvseriessuchas

“westworld”

and

“humans”.just

how

peoplethinkisstillfartoocomplextobeunderstood,letalonereproduced,saysdavideagleman,astanforduniversityneuroscientist.

“wearejustinasituationwheretherearenogoodtheoriesexplainingwhatconsciousnesssactuallyisandhowyoucouldeverbuildamachinetogetthere.”butthatdoesn’tmeancrucialethicalissuesinvolvingaiaren’tathand.thecominguseofautonomousvehicles,forexample,posesthornyethicalquestions.humandriverssometimesmustmakesplit-seconddecisions.theirreactionsmaybeacomplexcombinationofinstantreflexes,inputfrompastdrivingexperiences,andwhattheireyesandearstelltheminthatmoment.ai

“vision”

todayisnotnearlyassophisticatedasthatofhumans.andtoanticipateeveryimaginabledrivingsituationisadifficultprogrammingproblem.wheneverdecisionsarebasedonmassesofdata,

“youquicklygetintoalotofethicalquestions,”

notestankiathow,chiefexecutiveofasingapore-basedagencythatishelpingthegovernmentdevelopavoluntarycodefortheethicaluseofai.alongwithsingapore,othergovernmentsandmega-corporationsarebeginningtoestablishtheirownguidelines.britainissettingupadataethicscenter.indiareleaseditsaiethicsstrategythisspring.onjune7googlepledgednotto

“designordeployai”

thatwouldcause

“overallharm,”

ortodevelopai-directedweaponsoruseaiforsurveillancethatwouldviolateinternationalnorms.italsopledgednottodeployaiwhoseusewouldviolateinternationallawsorhumanrights.whilethestatementisvague,itrepresentsonestartingpoint.sodoestheideathatdecisionsmadebyaisystemsshouldbeexplainable,transparent,andfair.toputitanotherway:howcanwemakesurethatthethinkingofintelligentmachinesreflectshumanity’shighestvalues?onlythenwilltheybeusefulservantsandnotfrankenstein’sout-of-controlmonster.

31.

maryshelley’snovelfrankensteinismentionedbecauseita.

fascinatesaiscientistsallovertheworld.b.

hasremainedpopularforaslongas200years.c.

involvessomeconcernsraisedbyaitoday.d.

hassparkedseriousethicalcontroversies.32.

indavideagleman’sopinion,ourcurrentknowledgeofconsciousnessa.

helpsexplainartificialintelligence.b.

canbemisleadingtorobotmaking.c.

inspirespopularsci-fitvseries.d.

istoolimitedforustoreproduceit.33.

thesolutiontotheethicalissuesbroughtbyautonomousvehiclesa.

canhardlyeverbefound.b.

isstillbeyondourcapacity.c.

causeslittlepublicconcern.d.

hasarousedmuchcuriosity.34.

theauthor’sattitudetowardgoogle’spledgeisoneofa.

affirmation.b.

skepticism.c.

contempt.d.

respect.35.

whichofthefollowingwouldbethebesttitleforthetext?a.

ai’sfuture:inthehandsoftechgiantsb.

frankenstein,thenovelpredictingtheageofaic.

theconscienceofai:complexbutinevitabled.

aishallbekillersonceoutofcontrol31-35参考答案及解析:31.【c】involvessomeconcernsraisedbyaitoday;

通过题干maryshelly’snovelfrankenstein及题文同序原则可定位至文章第一段,在该段尾句,fictionthatwouldforeshadowmanyethicalquestionstoberaisedbytechnologiesyettocome.

此句中

ethicalquestions

可同义替换题干中的concern。故c为正选。32.【d】istoolimitedforustoreproduceit;观点细节题。可通过关键词consciousness

回文定位至原文第2段尾句部分:wearejustinasituationwheretherearenogoodtheoriesexplainingwhatconsciousnessactuallyisandhowyoucouldeverbuildamachinetogetthere.

可知我们将意识注入机器的能力是有限的,因为没有好的理论可以解释。33.【b】isstillbeyondourcapacity;根据题干关键词可定位至文章第3段,ai

“vision”todayisnotnearlyassophisticatedasthatofhumans.andtoanticipateeveryimaginabledrivingsituationisadifficultprogrammingproblem.该句说到:当下,人工智能的思维还不能达到人类的精密程度,去让机器去预设每一种驾驶情形是一个困难的编程问题。由此说明,去解决人工智能所带来的道德问题,是在人类的能力范围之外的。34.【a】affirmation;态度题

,根据题干中的

theauthor’sattitude,google’spledges.回文定位到第八段,,开头while转折,whilethestatementisvague,

与vague相反的即是观点,所以表示正向情感的词即是正解。affirmation表示确定。35.【c】frankenstein,thenovelpredictingtheageofai;主旨题。本文首段通过引用maryshelley的书引出本文要探讨的话题新技术所引发的道德问题。特别是在最后一段指出ai所涉及的道德问题已经触手可及。全篇复现了ai和conscience这两个关键词,所以答案选c

text4stateswillbeabletoforcemorepeopletopaysalestaxwhentheymakeonlinepurchasesunderasupremecourtdecisionthursdaythatwillleaveshopperswithlighterwalletsbutisabigfinancialwinforstates.thesupremecourt’sopinionthursdayoverruledapairofdecades-olddecisionsthatstatessaidcostthembillionsofdollarsinlostrevenueannually.thedecisionsmadeitmoredifficultforstatestocollectsalestaxoncertainonlinepurchases.thecasesthecourtoverturnedsaidthatifabusinesswasshippingacustomer’spurchasetoastatewherethebusinessdidn’thaveaphysicalpresencesuchasawarehouseoroffice,thebusinessdidn’thavetocollectsalestaxforthestate.customersweregenerallyresponsibleforpayingthesalestaxtothestatethemselvesiftheyweren’tchargedit,butmostdidn’trealizetheyoweditandfewpaid.justiceanthonykennedywrotethatthepreviousdecisionswereflawed.“eachyearthephysicalpresencerulebecomesfurtherremovedfromeconomicrealityandresultsinsignificantrevenuelossestothestates,”hewroteinanopinionjoinedbyfourotherjustices.kennedywrotethattherule“limitedstates’abilitytoseeklong-termprosperityandhaspreventedmarketparticipantsfromcompetingonanevenplayingfield.”therulingisavictoryforbigchainswithapresenceinmanystates,sincetheyusuallycollectsalestaxononlinepurchasesalready.now,rivalswillbechargingsalestaxwheretheyhadn’tbefore.bigchainshavebeencollectingsalestaxnationwidebecausetheytypicallyhavephysicalstoresinwhateverstateapurchaseisbeingshippedto.a,withitsnetworkofwarehouses,alsocollectssalestaxineverystatethatchargesit,thoughthird-partysellerswhousethesitedon’thaveto.untilnow,manysellersthathaveaphysicalpresenceinonlyasinglestateorafewstateshavebeenabletoavoidchargingsalestaxeswhentheyshiptoaddressesoutsidethosestates.sellersthatuseebayandetsy,whichprovideplatformsforsmallersellers,alsohaven’tbeencollectingsalestaxnationwide.undertherulingthursday,statescanpasslawsrequiringout-of-statesellerstocollectthestate’ssalestaxfromcustomersandsendittothestate.

retailtradegroupspraisedtheruling,sayingitlevelstheplayingfieldforlocalandonlinebusinesses.thelosers,saidretailanalystneilsaunders,areonline-onlyretailers,especiallysmallerones.thoseretailersmayfaceheadachescomplyingwithvariousstatesalestaxlaws.thesmallbusiness

&

entrepreneurshipcounciladvocacygroupsaidinaastatement,“smallbusinessesandinternetentrepreneursarenotwellservedatallbythisdecision.”36.

thesupremecourtdecisionthursdaywilla.

dettebusiness’relutionswithstatesb.

putmostonlinebusinessinadilemmac.

makemoreonlineshopperspaysalestaxd.

forcessomestatestocutsalestax37.

itcanbelearnedfromparagraphs

2and3thattheoverruleddecisions

a.

haveledtothedominanceofe-commerceb.

havecostconsumersalotovertheyearsc.

werewidelycriticizedbyonlinepurchasesd.

wereconsideredupfavorablebystates38.

accordingtojusticeanthonykennedy,thephysicalpresencerulehasa.

hinderedeconomicdevelopmentb.

broughtprosperitytothecountryc.

harmedfairmarketcompetitiond.

boostedgrowthinstates

revenue39.

whoaremostlikelytowelcomethe

supreme

courtrulinga.

internetentrepreneurs

b.

big-chainownersc.

third-partysellers

d.

smallretailers40.

indealingwiththesupremecourtdecisionthursday,theauthora.

givesafactualaccountofitanddiscussesitsconsequencesb.

describesthelongandcomplicatedprocessofitsmakingc.

presentsitsmainpointswithconflictingviewsonthemd.

citiessomesacesrelatedtoitandanalyzestheirimplications36-40参考答案及解析:36.【c】

make

more

online

shoppers

pay

sales

tax;本题为细节题,根据题干关键字“the

supreme

court

decision

thursday”定位到原文第一段“states

will

be

able

to

force

more

people

to

pay

sales

tax

when

they

make

online

purchases

under

a

supreme

court

decision

thursday

that

…”前半句已经明确提出各州的在线购物可能要交税,对应选项c,原词“

online”加“

shoppers”对“purchase”的同义替换。其他三个选项均为提及。

37.【d】were

considered

up

favorable

by

states;根据题干“learned”可知本题为推理题,根据关键字“the

overruled

decisions

”定位到原文第二段的两句,大意为“州政府抱怨以前的政策使每年税收损失惨重,因此以前的政策很难再收取网上营业税”两句表示出的意思都是对州政府的不利,对比四个选项,得出答案d,州政府认为原政策对州会不利,因此驳回这项决定会对州有有利,为正话反说。

38.【c】harmed

fair

market

competition;本题为细节题,根据题干关键词“justice

anthony

kennedy”“the

physical

presence

rule”定位到原文第四段的第二句和第三句,大意为实体店规定导致州政府税收亏损,接着下一句kennedy

wrote

that

the

rule

“limited

states’

ability

to

seek

long-term

prosperity

and

has

prevented

from

on

an

even

playing

field.”该规定限制了州政府长期繁荣,并妨碍市场参与者参与公平竞争。对比四个选项,d选项为“破坏了公平市场竞争”和原文“competing”“

market

participant”一一对应,为正确答案。

39.【b】big-chair

owners;根据题干“likely”得出本题为推理题,利用关键词“welcome

the

supreme

court

ruling”定位到原文第五段第一句“

the

ruling

is

a

victory

for

big

chains

with

a

presence

in

many

states,

since”对于大公司来说这项规定是一种胜利,因为…,只需找到关键词

“big

chain”即可选出b选项:大型连锁公司。

40.【d】cities

some

cases

related

to

it

and

analyzes

their

implications;本题为主旨题,需找出作者的相应观点与论证,根据题干关键词in

dealing

with

the

supreme

court

decision

thursday”回顾每段首尾句,推测每段大意,第一段讲述最高法院通过了征收在线营业税的决定,第二段介绍之前的裁决及后果是对州政府不利的,第三段介绍了原来裁决涉及到的案例,第四段陈列了法官的观点,即以前的裁决是有问题的,第五段主要讲述新判决会对大型连锁超市产生有利的影响,第六段讲述新裁决对州外卖价的影响,第七段表示新的判决得到零售界的肯定,因此本文的思路为:首段引出新判决,二三四段列举相关案例,五六七段对其影响进行讲述,对比四个选项,得出d:作者在讲述这个判决时引用了相关案例并分析了他们的影响。

partbdirections:thefollowingparagraphsaregiveninawrongorder.

forquestions

41-45,

youarerequiredtoreorganizetheseparagraphsintoacoherentarticlebychoosingfromthelista-gandfillingthemintothenumberedboxes.

paragraphcandf

havebeencorrectlyplaced.markyouranswerson

answersheet.

(10points)a.

thesetoolscanhelpyouwineveryargument-notintheunhelpfulsenseofbeatingyouropponentsbutinthebettersenseoflearningabouttheissuesthatdividepeople.learningwhytheydisagreewithusandlearningtotalkandworktogetherwiththem.ifwereadjustourviewofarguments—fromaverbalfightortennisgametoareasonedexchangethroughwhichweallgainmutualrespect,andunderstanding—thenwechangetheverynatureofwhatitmeansto

“win”

anargument.b.

ofcourse,manydiscussions

arenotsosuccessful.still,weneedtobecarefulnottoaccuseopponentsofbadargumentstooquickly.weneedtolearnhowtoevaluatethemproperly.alargepartofevaluationiscallingoutbadarguments,butwealsoneedtoadmitgoodargumentsbyopponentsandtoapplythesamecriticalstandardstoourselves.humilityrequiresyoutorecognizeweaknessinyourownargumentsandsometimesalsotoacceptreasonsontheoppositeside.c.

noneofthesewillbeeasybutyoucanstartevenifothersrefuseto.nexttimeyoustateyourposition,formulateanargumentforwhatyouclaimandhonestlyaskyourselfwhetheryourargumentisanygood.nexttimeyoutalkwithsomeonewhotakesastand,askthemtogiveyouareasonfortheirview.spellouttheirargumentfullyandcharitably.assessitsstrengthimpartially.raiseobjectionsandlistencarefullytotheirreplies.d.

carnegiewouldberightifarguments

werefights,whichishowweoftenthinkofthem.likephysicalfights,verbalfightscanleavebothsidesbloodied.evenwhenyouwin,youendupnobetteroff.yourprospectswouldbealmostasdismalifargumentswereevenjustcompetitions-like,say,tennisgames.parisofopponentshittheballbackandforthuntilonewinneremergesfromallwhoentered.everybodyelseloses.thiskindofthinkingiswhysomanypeopletrytoavoidarguments,especiallyaboutpoliticsandreligion.e.

inhis1936work

howtowinfriendsandinfluencepeople

,dalecarnegiewrote:

“thereisonlyoneway…togetthebestofanargument-andthatistoavoidit.“thisaversiontoargumentsiscommon,butitdependsonamistakenviewofargumentsthatcausesprofoundproblemsforourpersonalandsociallives-andinmanywaysmissesthepointofarguinginthefirstplace.f.theseviewsofargumentsalsounderminereason.ifyouseeaconversationasafightorcompetition,youcanwinbycheatingaslongasyoudon’tgetcaught.youwillbehappytoconvincepeoplewithbadarguments.youcancalltheirviewsstupid,orjokeabouthowignoranttheyare.noneofthesetrickswillhelpyouunderstandthem,theirpositionsortheissuesthatdivideyou,buttheycanhelpyouwin-inoneway.g.thereisabetterwaytowinarguments.imaginethatyoufavorincreasingtheminimumwageinourstate,andidonot.ifyouyell,“yes,”andiyell.“no,”neitherofuslearnsanything.weneitherunderstandnorrespecteachother,andwehavenobasisforcompromiseorcooperation.incontrast,supposeyougiveareasonableargument:thatfull-timeworkersshouldnothavetoliveinpoverty.thenicounterwithanotherreasonableargument:thatahigherminimumwagewillforcebusinessestoemployfewerpeopleforlesstime.nowwecanunderstandeachother’spositionsandrecognizeoursharedvalues,sincewebothcareaboutneedyworkers.41→42→f→43→44→c→4541-45参考答案及解析:e

d

g

b

a41.e[inhis1936work

h

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