2020年考研英语阅读真题(一)text3——出题思路
you can is so true.
这道题,在题干中看到的信息不多,且段落较多,共10段,没有一道题标明在第几段的,这就要求我们在段落前标上序号,看看那几个段落讲的是一个话题,按文题同序,个个击破。
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一、听懂人话(审题,看老师问了你什么?文章的中心是什么,结构是什么?)
31、the author believes that the bills sponsored by lewis and haddad?will__
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解析:believe,consider,deem,argue,demand,say,think,hold,remark,indicate全表示观点。?be inferred from
bill——a written suggestion for a new law that is presented to a countrys parliament so that its members can discuss it
(提交议会讨论的)议案,法案
to introduce/approve/reject a bill提出 / 通过 / 否决一项议案
sponsored(发起,倡议)后置定语。lewis and haddad能定位。
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32、which of the following is true of the california measure?___
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measure?[?me??(r)]v.衡量; 测量n.措施
measure——a statute in draft before it becomes law在成为法律之前起草的法规
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33、the author mention
2020年考研英语阅读真题(一)text3——出题思路(2020年考研英语真题)插图
s?the study by catalyst to?illustrate___
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解析:mentions,to illustrate是例证的标志,是为中心老大背书的。
?illustrate[??l?stre?t]v.(用示例/图画等)说明;
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34、norways adoption of a nationwide?corporate?gender quota?has led to_____
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解析:核心词——gender quota性别配额,可知本文提到的议案是关于性别平等的,led to引起什么问题或结果。表面是细节需补充完整,实际上这细节由主旨老大决定,是为中心老大背书的。led to引起的是不好的东西。
隐含31提出议案的不怎么样(?)
quota=how may
corporate[?k??p?r?t]adj.公司的; 法人的?(corpor=body)
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35. which of the following can?be inferred from?the text?_____(推理)
iai womens need in employment should be considered
[b] feasibility should be a prime concern in policy?making.
[c] everyone should try hard to promote social justice.
[d] major social issues should be the focus of legislation.
?
be inferred from从…中推导出;
解析:由34题中的gender quota性别配额,可知本文提到的议案是关于性别平等的,由led to引起的是不好的东西。四个选项acd全是激进,b是相对保守,主旨大概是b
总结:这道题,在题干中看到的信息不多,且段落较多,共10段,这就要求我们在做题前划上段落序号,看看那几个段落讲的是一个话题,按文题同序,个个击破。
推理题可易可难,难的时候,要看文中重复的内容,有人称为穿针引线法——各段的首句说了些什么,本质是主旨。容易时在后一两段,本质还是主旨。
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二、“跟着老大,顺藤摸瓜”是必须遵守的
31.the author believes that the bills sponsored by lewis and haddad will_____(作者认为,刘易斯和哈达德提出的议案会)
[a] help little to reduce gender bias.
[b] pose a threat to the state government.
[c] raise womens position in politics.
[d] greatly broaden career options.
a.对减少性别偏见几乎没有 助
b.对州政府构成威胁
c.提高女性的政治地位
d.极大地增加了职业选择
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1、progressives often support diversity?mandates?as a path to equality and a way to level the playing field.?but all too often such policies are an insincere form of virtue-signaling that benefits only the most privileged and does little to help average people.
参考译文:进步人士通常支持将多样化规定作为一种实现平等和打造公平竟争环境的方式,但这种政策往往是一种美德体现的虚伪方式,只会有利于最能享有特权的人,而对于普通人几乎没有 助。
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解析:由34题中的gender quota性别配额,可知本文提到的议案是关于性别平等的,由led to引起的是不好的东西。由第一段的little to help average people。验证了在读题干时的推猜是正确的。2、3段是罗罗,是跟着老大说的。
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key words:
progressives [pr?ɡ 不断前进的.
(a person who favors a political philosophy of progress and reform and the protection of civil liberties)
conservative [k?n?s??v?t?v]n.保守者; 保守党(支持者)
(a person who has conservative ideas or opinions)
公平equality=parity=fairness=(ever) playing field=integrity=fair play=equity
★level the playing field.公平的竞争环境。
★virtue[?v??t?u?]n.美德,德行(vir=man君子)
★privilege [?pr?v?l?d?]n.特权; 优惠(privi=priv单个+lege法律→有个人法律)
mandate [?m?nde?t]n.授权; 任期; 委任; 命令;强制执行(man=hand)
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总结:★★首段出现but,最能表达作者的观点,同时也是文章的主旨。?
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2、a pair of bills sponsored by massachusetts state senator?jason lewis and house speaker pro tempore patricia haddad,to ensure “gender parityon boards and commissions, provide a?case in point.
参考译文:由马萨诸塞州参议员杰森·刘易斯和众议院临时议长帕特里夏·哈达德提出的两项议案便是恰当的例子,这两项议案旨在确保在理事会和委员会中实现“性别平等”。
key words:
senator [?sen?t?(r)]n.参议员
senior [?si?ni?(r)]年长的;地位较高的(sen老+ior较……)
parity[?p?r?ti]同等;奇偶(par平等+ity表名词→n.同等;奇偶)
a case in point佐证,恰当的例子
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3、haddad and lewis are concerned that more than half the?state-government boards are less than 40 percent female. in?order to ensure that elite women have more such opportunities,they have proposed imposing government quotas. if the bills?become law, state boards and commissions will be required to?set aside 50 percent of board seats for women by 2022.
参考译文:哈达德和刘易斯担心,超过一半的州政府理事会中,女性所占比例均不足40%,为确保精英女性拥有更多这样的机会,他们提议实施政府配额。如果这两项议案最终成为法律,那么州理事会和委员会就要在2022年之前为女性预留出50%的委员会席位。
key words:
set aside留出;省出;把……放到一旁;暂时不考虑;驳回
elite[e??li?t ]n.精英,杰出人物(lect=choose)
impose[?m?p??z]v.推行,强制实行(pose =put)
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32.which of the following is true of the california?measure?____关于加利福尼亚州的议案,下列哪项说法是正确的?
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[a] it has?irritated?private business owners.
[b] it is welcomed by the supreme court.
[c]it may go against the constitution.
[d] it will settle the prior controversies.
a.它激怒了私营企业所有者。
b.它被最高法院欣然接受。
c.它可能违背宪法。
d.它将解决先前的争议。
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4、the bills are similar to a measure recently adopted in california, which last year became the first state to require gender quotas for private companies.in signing the measure,california’s?governor jerry brown admitted that the law, which expressly classifies people on the basis of sex,is probably unconstitutional
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解析:这道题难在定位上:california在第4、5段中找到,故32题定位于第4、5段,且是他们的交集,4段is probably unconstitutional.5段the law violates the constitutional guarantee of“equal protection”.
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参考译文:这两项议案与最近在加利福尼亚州通过的一项议案相似,去年该州成为要求私营企业实行性别配额的第一个州。(32)在签署该议案时,加州州长杰里·布朗承认,这一条明确将人按照性别分类的法律很可能是违反宪法的。
key words:
on the basis of在某事的基础上;根据某事
measure(a statute in draft before it becomes law)=law= legislation(a law or a set of laws passed by a parliament)=act((议会通过的)法案,法令)= initiative (美国某些州的公民立法提案程序)=bill?((提交议会讨论的)议案,法案)
settle=address=tackle=handle=approach=resolve=solve=cope with =deal with =work out=sort out=work through=field(成功应对)
?irritated?[??r?te?t?d]使发怒( irritate的过去式和过去分词 ); 使急躁(ir使……,成为,进入,再+rit擦+ate表动词)
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经验:admit?(承认),recognize;suggest;indicate(表明);demand(要求),argue,等后面表示观点。
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5、the us supreme court frowns on?sex-based classifications unless they are designed to address an“importantpolicy interest,because the california law applies to all boards,ever where there is no history of prior discrimination,courts are likely to?rule that?the law violates the constitutional?guarantee?of“equal protection”.
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参考译文:美国最高法院不赞成将人按照性别进行分类,除非该分类旨在解决“重要的”政策利益问题。因为加利福尼亚州的法律适用于所有理事会,即使理事会之前没有性别歧视的先例,法院也很可能裁定该法律违反了“平等保护”的宪法保障。
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key words:
frowns on不赞成的话
be?likely to很有可能
discrimination [d??skr?m??ne??n]n.区别对待; 鉴别力; 区别(dis=away+crimin分辨+ate+tion)
violate[?va??le?t] v.违反; 侵犯
violate= go against= breach= dishonor
constitutional [?k?nst??tju:??nl]adj.宪法的,章程的
unconstitutional [??n?k?nst??tju:??nl]adj.违反宪法的,不符合章程[法规]的;
constitutionality [?k?nst??tju:???n?l?ti] 合宪法性;(?con =together ;?stitu?=put; -ion名词后缀;-?ity抽象名词后缀)
guarantee [?g?r?n?ti:] n.保证,担保; 保证人(guard保卫;ant后缀;ee后缀,表被动。)
guarantee against 保证…不…;
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33.the author mentions the study by catalyst to illustrate_____(mention例证标志)
[a] the harm from arbitrary board decision.
[b] the importance of constitutional?guarantees.
[c] the pressure on women in global corporations.
[d] the needlessness?of government interventions.
作者提到 catalyst的研究是为了说明:
a.董事会任意决策所带来的危害
b.宪法保障的重要性
c.全球企业中女性的压力
d.政府干预的不必要性
解析:例证是解释前面提到的论点。
6、but are such government mandates even necessary?female participation?on corporate boards may not currently mirror?the percentage of women.in the general population,but so what?
参考译文:但这样的政府规定是否有必要呢?目前,女性在公司董事会中的参与人数可能并未反映其在公司总人口中所占的比例,但那又如何呢?
key words:
mandate [?m?nde?t]n.授权; 任期; 委任; 命令;强制执行(man=hand)
mirror反映=reflect=project
participation[pɑ??t?s??pe??n]n.参加,参与
so what是一个非正式表达,用于表现说话人对某事不屑一顾的态度。
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7、the number of?women on corporate boards has been steadily increasing without?government interference.according to a study by catalyst,between 2010 and 2015 the share of women on the boards of global corporations increased by 54 percent.
参考译文:(33)在没有政府干预的情况下,公司董事会中女性的人数一直在稳步增加。 catalyst的一项研究显示,2010年至2015年间女性在全球企业董事会中所占比例增长了54%。
key words:
interference [??nt??f??r?ns]n.干涉,干扰
the number of…的数目;
a number of许多的; 一些;
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34.norways adoption of a nationwide corporate gender quota has led to_____
[a] the underestimation of elite womens role.
[b] the objection to female participation on bards.
[c] the entry of unqualified candidates into the board.
[d] the growing tension between labor and management.
挪威在全国范围内实行公司性别配额,导致_____
a.对精英女性作用的低估
b.反对女性参与董事会
c.不能胜任的候选人进入董事会
d.劳资关系日益紧张
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解析:是为本段中心老大背书的。本段中心是:要求公司将性别作为董事会成员的主要资格不可避免地导致经验不足成为董事会成员。[c] 不合格候选人进入董事会,是同意转换。
key words:
?quota =
unqualified不合格的
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8、requiring companies to make gender the primary qualification for board membership will inevitably lead to less experienced private sector boards.that is exactly what happened when?norway?adopted a nationwide corporate gender quota.
参考译文:(34)要求公司将性别作为董事会成员任职的首要标准,将不可避免地导致私营部门董事会经验不足。这正是挪威在全国范围内实行公司性别配额时出现的情况。
requiring companies to make gender (to be)the primary qualification for board membership?will inevitably?lead to?less experienced private sector boards.
requiring companies to make gender (to be)the primary qualification for board membership动名词作主语;lead to谓语
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key words:
require…to do sth.需要……做什么
qualification[?kw?l?f??ke??n]n.资格,授权
interfere=intervene
without没有;no longer;against或比较级,在考试中常考。
35. which of the following can be inferred from the text?_____
iai womens need in employment should be considered
[b] feasibility should be a prime concern in policy?making.
[c] everyone should try hard to promote social justice.
[d] major social issues should be the focus of legislation.
从文中可以推断出下列哪项?
a.应考虑女性在就业方面的需求。
b.可行性应该是决策中的首要考虑因素。
c.每个人都应该努力促进社会公正。
d.重大社会问题应成为立法的重点。
解析:but do little to help average women.与一段前呼后应,iai womens need in employment should be considered
是对最后一段的小解。
9、writing in the new republic, alice lee?notes?that increasing the number of opportunities for board membership without increasing the pool of qualified women?to serve on such boards has led to a“golden skirtphenomenon. where the same elite women scoop up multiple seats on a variety of boards.
参考译文:爱丽丝·李在美国《新共和》杂志中指出董事会成员的席位虽增多,但却没有更多合格的女性在这些董事会中任职,这便导致了“金裙”现象:同一位精英女性在不同董事会中占据着多个席位。
where引导的非限定性定语从句,补充说明a. phenomenon where the same elite women scoop up multiple seats
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key words:
the pool of qualified women储存
10、next time somebody pushes corporate quotas as a way to promote gender equity,remember that such policies are largely self-serving?measures that make their sponsors feel good but do little to help average women.
参考译文:下次若有人将公司配额作为促进性别平等的一种方式,请记住,这些政策在很大程度上都是利己的议案,它们让倡议者感觉良好,但对普通女性的 助却微乎其微。
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